English Vocabulary for the Sky – part2

Sunlight : the rays of the sun (pic) (pic)

Sunsight: Accurate Term for the First Sighting of the Sun in the Morning(pic)

half moon: the time at which the Moon is at first or last quarter when half its face is illuminated (pic)

firmament: Firmament is a name for the sky or the heavens, generally used in the context of Christianity, Judaism and Islam

heaven: the sky

sky: the atmosphere and outer space as viewed from the earth (img)

welkin: The sky, the upper air; the heavens; firmament

heavenly body: (pl. heavenly bodies) celestial body, natural objects visible in the sky (img )

Celestial: of or relating to the sky

planet: any celestial body (other than comets or satellites) that revolves around a star (the earth, our blue planet)

planetoidminor planet, any of numerous small celestial bodies that move around the sun

asteroid:  any of numerous small celestial bodies composed of rock and metal that move around the sun (mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter)

solar system: the sun with the celestial bodies that revolve around it in its gravitational field (img1)(img2)

binary star: a system of two stars that revolve around each other under their mutual gravitation (img)

black hole: a region of space resulting from the collapse of a star; extremely high gravitational field

moon: the natural satellite of the Earth (Moon)

sun:  the star that is the source of light and heat for the planets in the solar system (img)

phoebus:  the sun (poetry)

star: any celestial body visible (as a point of light) from the Earth at night  (the starred sky)

galaxy: A large group of stars. Our galaxy is called the Milky Way (img)

lunar eclipse: the earth interrupts light shining on the moon (img1)(img2)

solar eclipse: the moon interrupts light from the sun (img1)(img2)

orbit: the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another (the orbit of the earth)

falling star, fire ball, shooting star, meteor: a streak of light in the sky at night that results when a meteoroid hits the earth’s atmosphere and air friction causes the meteoroid to melt or vaporize or explode (img)

meteorite: stony or metallic object that is the remains of a meteoroid that has reached the earth’s surface (img)

north star, Polaris: the brightest star in Ursa Minor; at the end of the handle of the Little Dipper; the northern axis of the earth points toward it (img)

comet: a relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit (img)

Pluto: the ninth planet in the Solar System, it has the most elliptical orbit of all the planets (in Vietnamese, it named Diêm Vương Tinh)

Neptune: a giant planet with a ring of ice particles; the 8th planet from the sun is the most remote of the gas giants (in Vietnamese, it named Hải Vương Tinh)

Mars: the Red Planet, a small reddish planet that is the 4th from the sun and is periodically visible to the naked eye; minerals rich in iron cover its surface and are responsible for its characteristic color (img) (in Vietnamese, it is called Hỏa Tinh)

Venus: the second nearest planet to the sun; it is peculiar in that its rotation is slow and retrograde (in the opposite sense of the Earth and all other planets except Uranus); it is visible from Earth as an early `morning star’ or an `evening star’ (see the Solar System img) (in Vietnamese, it is called Kim Tinh, Sao Mai, Sao Hôm)

Jupiter: the largest planet and the 5th from the sun; has many satellites and is one of the brightest objects in the night sky (img) (in Vietnamese, it called Mộc Tinh)

Uranus: a giant planet with a ring of ice particles; the 7th planet from the sun has a blue-green color and many satellites; “Uranus was discovered by William Herschel in 1781” (in Vietnamese, it is called Thiên Vương Tinh)

Mercury: the smallest planet and the nearest to the sun (in Vietnamese, it called Thủy Tinh)

Saturn: a giant planet that is surrounded by three planar concentric rings of ice particles; the 6th planet from the sun  (in Vietnamese, it is called Thổ Tinh)

red giant: A large red coloured star with a lower surface temperature than many stars
nova: a star that ejects some of its material in the form of a cloud and become more luminous in the process

white dwarf: a faint star of enormous density

nature: the natural physical world including plants and animals and landscapes etc (img)

nebula – nebulae (pl): an immense cloud of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust in interstellar space  (img)

crescent: the curved shape moon in its first or last quarters (img)

new moon: the time at which the Moon appears as a narrow waxing crescent

full moon: the time when the Moon is fully illuminated

lunation: lunation is the mean time for one lunar phase cycle (i.e., the synodic period of the Moon).  It is on average 29.530589 days, or 29 d 12 h 44 min 3 s

satellite: any celestial body orbiting around a planet or star

cosmos, macrocosm, universe: everything that exists anywhere


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